各級教評會應本公正、客觀、明快、嚴謹之原則，處理涉嫌著作抄襲檢舉案。抄襲成立之案件，應依抄襲類型情節輕重，有下列情形之一者，由各級教評會決議懲處： (一)、著作完全抄襲者解聘，如涉教師資格並辦理註銷教師資格。 (二)、著作部分抄襲者視情節輕重予以解聘或不續聘或一定期間不得晉級或申請升等。
第 七 條 （抄襲之懲處）受理單位應於接獲檢舉之日起四個月內作成具體結論，確認抄襲是否成立，並於審定後十日內將處理結果及理由以書面通知檢舉人及被檢舉人。如經認定有抄襲情事，審理單位應按抄襲情節之輕重，對被檢舉人作後十日內將懲處情形、理由、申訴之期限及受理單位等以書面通知檢舉人前項著作抄襲案件案情複雜或有窒礙難行之因素者，其審定期間得延長二個月，遇寒暑假期間，時程得順延之，並應通知檢舉人及被檢舉人。
第 二 條 本辦法所稱著作抄襲案件，指學術論著抄襲、研究構想剽竊等違背學術規範案件。 第 八 條 校教評會對審議成立之檢舉案件，應依抄襲類型、情節輕重及著作性質，分別作出解聘、停聘、不續聘、五年內不得申請升等、送請所屬單位作為年資晉薪或年功加俸之參考。
第 九 條 論文有抄襲或舞弊情事，經碩、博士學位考試委員會審查確定者，以不及格論。 第十五條 已授予之學位，如發現論文、創作、展演或書面報告、技術報告有抄襲或舞弊情事，經調查屬實者，撤銷其學位，追繳已發之學位證書。
美國高校對抄襲現象要求如此嚴格，但違規者其實並不多。Mitch 告訴我，這恐怕得益於美國高校普遍採取的一項規章制度，那就是每位大學新生在入學前，都必須在一個非常正式嚴肅的場合，與高校鄭重其事地簽訂一份"Honor Code"(我姑且把它翻譯成誠信保證書)。"Honor Code"的文字內容可能千差萬別，也往往會包含很多內容，但其中一項卻是高度的一致--我發誓，作為大學校園裏的一員，我絕對不會撒謊、欺騙或者偷盜別人的勞動成果（I pledge that I will not lie, cheat, or steal as a member of college community）。這也就意味著，大學生們的署名作業、論文或者答卷，必須完完全全是自己的努力成果，否則便是違背了"Honor Code"的承諾。而為了確保"Honor Code"的具體落實，特別是在學術領域的堅定貫徹，大學生們往往會自己選舉產生一個獨立的學生法庭（student judiciary），該法庭會負責嚴格監督學生們的誠信狀況，並且負責在出現剽竊現象時做出公正的裁決--通常是要求該生離校。
From 蘇婧 〈美國高校是怎樣遏制學術腐敗的？〉
例如 Duke University http://www.lib.duke.edu/libguide/plagiarism.htmHonor Code
As a student and citizen of the Duke University Community:
1. I will not lie, cheat, or steal in my academic endeavors
2. I will forthrightly oppose each and every instances of academic dishonesty.
3. I will communicate directly with any person or persons I believe to have been dishonest. Such communication may be oral or written. Written communication may be signed or anonymous.
4. I will give prompt written notification to the appropriate faculty member and to the Dean of Trinity College or the Dean of the Pratt School of Engineering when I observe academic dishonesty in any course
5. I will let my conscience guide my decision to have committed a violation of this Code.
6. I join the undergraduate student body of Duke University in a commitment to the Code of Honor
Academic communities, then, demand that writers credit others for their work, and that the source of their material clearly be acknowledged. Not to do so is to plagiarize, to intentionally or unintentionally appropriate the ideas, language, key terms, or findings of another without sufficient acknowledgment that such material is not one own. As the Modern Language Association defines this transgression:
Scholarly authors generously acknowledge their debts to predecessors by carefully giving credit to each source. Whenever you draw on another work, you must specify what you borrowed whether facts, opinions, or quotations and where you borrowed it from. Using another person ideas or expressions in your writing without acknowledging the source constitutes plagiarism. Derived from the Latin plagiarius ("kidnapper"), plagiarism refers to a form of intellectual theft. . .In short, to plagiarize is to give the impression that you wrote or thought something that you in fact borrowed from someone, and to do so is a violation of professional ethics. (Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 2nd. ed, New York: MLA, 1998: 151).
On occasion, students accused of plagiarism have claimed that their plagiarism has occurred without their knowledge or intent. Since ignorance of convention is not a reasonable defense, it is best to become thoroughly acquainted both with the various ways in which plagiarism is construed, and with the conventions of source attribution and proper documentation. Some students seem to believe that there are different degrees of plagiarism, some not as a bad as others. No distinctions are made between any of the following acts. All constitute instances of plagiarism as outlined in Duke University Rules and Regulations of the Undergraduate Community, and all constitute transgression of the Duke Community Standard (Honor Code). You will be charged with plagiarism if you:
o Copy from published sources without adequate documentation.
o Purchase a pre-written paper (either by mail or electronically).
o Let someone else write a paper for you.
o Pay someone else to write a paper for you.
o Submit as your own someone else unpublished work, either with or without permission.
III. Standards of Conduct
Without regard to motive, student conduct that is academically dishonest, evidences lack of academic integrity or trustworthiness, or unfairly impinges upon the intellectual rights and privileges of others is prohibited. A non-exhaustive list of prohibited conduct includes:
A. Cheating on Exams and Other Assignments
B. Committing Plagiarism
Plagiarism, in any of its forms, and whether intentional or unintentional, violates standards of academic integrity. Plagiarism is the act of passing off as one's own the ideas or writings of another. While different academic disciplines have different modes for attributing credit, all recognize and value the contributions of individuals to the general corpus of knowledge and expertise. Students are responsible for educating themselves as to the proper mode of attributing credit in any course or field. Faculty may use various methods to assess the originality of students' work. For example, faculty may submit a student's work to electronic search engines, including Turnitin.com, a service to which the Honor Council and the Provost subscribe. Note that plagiarism can be said to have occurred without any affirmative showing that a student's use of another's work was intentional.
C. Using False Citations
False citation is academic fraud. False citation is the attribution of intellectual property to an incorrect or fabricated source with the intention to deceive. False attribution seriously undermines the integrity of the academic enterprise by severing a chain of ideas which should be traceable link by link.
D. Submitting Work for Multiple Purposes
E. Submitting False Data
F. Falsifying Academic Documentation
G. Abuse of Library Privileges
H. Abuse of Shared Electronic Media
Definitions of Academic Violations
Registration at Northwestern requires adherence to the University's standards of academic integrity. These standards may be intuitively understood, and cannot in any case be listed exhaustively; the following examples represent some basic types of behavior that are unacceptable:
1. Cheating: using unauthorized notes, study aids, or information on an examination; altering a graded work after it has been returned, then submitting the work for regrading; allowing another person to do one's work and submitting that work under one's own name; submitting identical or similar papers for credit in more than one course without prior permission from the course instructors.
2. Plagiarism: submitting material that in part or whole is not entirely one's own work without attributing those same portions to their correct source.
4. Obtaining an Unfair Advantage:
5. Aiding and Abetting Academic Dishonesty
6. Falsification of Records and Official Documents
7. Unauthorized Access to computerized academic or administrative records or systems
By coming to Yale, you have implicitly asked the College to help you develop a broadly based, highly disciplined intelligence; you've asked not just to learn material, but also to be guided towards a deep and supple understanding of the subjects you study. Course readings, lectures, and discussions are all crucial elements of this learning. Less obvious, perhaps, is what your own writing contributes to this process. It may sometimes seem that exams, lab reports, and papers are meant primarily to measure how much you've learned. But when you complete written coursework, you are not demonstrating what you've learned, but are rather doing the very work of synthesis and reflection that constitutes advanced learning. Every writer has had the experience of making discoveries while writing an essay. To have this discovery is to make knowledge, and making knowledge is what joins you to the project of the university.
Students who cheat forfeit the opportunity to make such discoveries. Certainly there are other reasons not to cheat. If you borrow unacknowledged ideas or language from others, you are stealing their work, which denies them their due credit and also impedes the free exchange of ideas that the university depends on. Yale regards cheating as a serious offense, for which the standard penalty is two semesters of suspension. But the much more grievous wrong is to the cheating student. Your writing is one of the most powerful sites of learning; students who turn in someone else's work, therefore, are giving away the very substance of their educations.
College coursework frequently ask students to build on previous scholarship, or to collaborate with other students. The following definitions may help clarify the proper procedures for conducting and documenting these collaborations.A. Multiple submission
Plagiarism is the use of someone else's work, words, or ideas as if they were your own. Thus most forms of cheating on examinations are plagiarism; but we usually apply the word to papers rather than to examinations.
If you use a source for a paper, you must acknowledge it. Initially, many students fear that acknowledging sources obscures their own original contribution to a paper. But the very idea of writing in a university is to trace your participation in a conversation of scholars. Showing how your ideas derive from and comment on the ideas of others is one of the high achievements of mature academic writing. It would be a mistake to downplay this achievement in an attempt to suggest greater originality. What we really want to see is an intellectual interdependence between student writers and their sources.
What counts as a source varies greatly depending on the assignment, but the list certainly includes readings, lectures, Web sites, conversations, interviews, and other students' papers. Every academic discipline has its own conventions for acknowledging sources. Your instructor should make clear which conventions you must use. But even if you're confused about the specific punctuation and formatting, you must make clear in your written work where you have borrowed from others-whether data, opinions, questions, ideas, or specific language. This obligation holds whether the sources are published or unpublished.
Submission of an entire paper prepared by someone else is an especially egregious form of plagiarism, and is grounds for the imposition of a particularly serious penalty, even for expulsion from the University.
D. Problem sets and ungraded written assignments
E. Laboratory exercises
F. A last note
Consequences to Plagiarizing at Duke As a violation of the Duke Community Standard, charges of plagiarism are brought to the attention of Judicial Affairs, which initiates an investigation that may lead to formal charges made at an Undergraduate Judicial Board hearing. The process for the investigation and the adjudication of charges may be accessed at the Dean of Students Office's Guide to The Undergraduate Disciplinary Process. Plagiarism is a serious offense that can result in a variety of sanctions (failure of the course in which the plagiarism occurred and suspension from the University among them). The Duke University Honor Council devotes itself to educating the University community about the importance of maintaining an ethic of academic integrity. Their online materials provide useful information regarding special events, workshops, and ongoing discussions about ethical intellectual conduct at Duke.
What Happens if You Cheat Some students underestimate the risks of academic misconduct. Professors can usually tell by the change of style when a writer is using someone else's words, and they are familiar with sources usually plagiarized; grades are routinely audited for unauthorized changes; bluebooks and papers are cross-checked between sections of large courses for evidence of cheating.
If a professor suspects a violation, he or she refers the matter to the academic dean for review. If, after considering the evidence and talking with the student, the dean decides a violation has occurred, the professor may lower the student's grade. Additional sanctions, ranging from a letter of reprimand to exclusion from the University, are imposed by the school in which the student is enrolled. Though procedures vary in detail among Northwestern's six undergraduate schools, they all contain adequate safeguards and channels of review and appeal. Each case is considered on its individual merits, and penalties may vary accordingly.
All proven cases of academic misconduct will be penalized as appropriate under the circumstances. Sanctions other than a reduced or failing grade will be imposed by the school in which the student is enrolled. The imposition of any sanction other than a private reprimand will include a statement of reasons supporting its severity. A student may appeal any finding or sanction as specified by the school holding jurisdiction. Sanctions may include but are not limited to:
Sample Plagiarism CasesM
A student was charged with plagiarizing a portion of a paper. The original source was part of the available evidence. The student did not contest the facts or the violation. A Judicial Panel found the student responsible for violating the Honor Code. Sanctions: One-quarter suspension and 40 hours of community service.
A student turned in a paper that was identical (except for cover sheet and typographical errors) to a paper submitted by another student to a different course the previous quarter. A teaching assistant who happened to TA both courses discovered the plagiarism. The student did not contest the facts or the violation. A Judicial Panel found the student responsible for violating the Honor Code.
Sanctions: One-quarter suspension and 40 hours of community service.
A student submitted an essay written for a previous class, in its entirety, to another faculty member for a course taken the following quarter. The syllabus for the second course specifically prohibited using an assignment submitted to another course. The instructor became concerned because the essay did not cover the material discussed in the course. The student claimed not to have read the syllabus but, once it was pointed out, the student did not contest the facts or the violation. A Judicial Panel found the student responsible for violating the Honor Code.
Sanctions: One-quarter suspension and 40 hours of community service.
Two students submitted a computer program containing over 70% of the same code. The similarity was detected by the MOSS (Measure of Software Similarity) system, a free service to the educational community provided by U.C. Berkeley. Student A admitted to finding a copy of the other student B's code on a public computer and using it to complete the assignment. Student B was not involved in giving the unpermitted aid and therefore was not charged. Student A did not contest the facts or the violation. A Judicial Panel found the student responsible for violating the Honor Code.
Sanction: One-quarter suspension and 40 hours of community service.
A student turned in an essay that had substantial and extensive copying from a published source. A TA noticed that the composition of the essay was problematic. The student acknowledged failing to properly cite sources, but contested that it was an Honor Code violation on the basis that he misunderstood the directions and did not intend to plagiarize. A Judicial Panel found the student responsible for violating the Honor Code.
Sanctions: One-quarter suspension and 40 hours of community service.
A professor was concerned about a final paper submitted by a student because:
1) the paper did not answer the question that had been posed,
2) the paper covered portions of the book the students had not been asked to read, and
3) several sentences were far from the normal writing style of Stanford undergraduates.
After searching the web the professor found at least one of the web sites from which the work had been plagiarized. The student did not contest the facts or the violation. A Judicial Panel held the student responsible for violating the Honor Code.
Sanctions: Two-quarter delay in the conferral of degree and 40 hours of community service.
在英國教育體制中，各大學對於論文(作業)剽竊抄襲之處理方式皆遵照由各大學議會一致通過之 University Policy on Plagiarism 辦理。各大學所提供與論文剽竊相關網頁，不論是發佈於圖書館、系所規定或寫作中心多有連結至葛拉斯哥大學網頁(University of Glasgow)，內有論文抄襲懲處之詳盡章程。有關University Policy on Plagiarism 之詳細內容，請參見 University of Glasgow.基本上，英國各大學對於學生論文(作業)剽竊之態度多為道德勸說，目的希望學生能替學術界的論文(廣伸為各學術出版品)品質提升有所貢獻，更要看重自己的學術生涯，而做法也非單單被動「提醒」，其亦著重於教師應在課程中灌輸學生正確做學問之態度，實務上教導學生寫出符合規定之有品質的論文(作業)。「預防更勝於治療」或許可以說是英國大學裡對於論文(作業)剽竊之態度。關於學生剽竊之懲罰輕重依各校而有所差異，然審理程序依照上列之University Policy on Plagiarism章程辦理。由於章程內容繁複且為文章體或條列式說明，因此僅以下方之圖解流程供需要者參考(圖表來源為 University of Leeds，更多資料請至下列網站查詢 http://www.ldu.leeds.ac.uk/plagiarism/penalties.php )
關於學生可能受到之處罰部分，以University of Leeds所提供的資訊為例，從最輕的罰則到最嚴厲的依序是(1)僅以學生作業中未涉及抄襲部分計分、(2)該作業成績以零分計算、(3)該學年成績不及格(被當)並得重修、或(4)退學處理。以下提供University of Sussex 以及 University of Manchester 對於學生抄襲的可能成罰以供參考，University of Sussex 分類較細，University of Manchester 則為概括說明，不論其分類法為何，各學院最嚴厲的懲罰絕對還是開除該名學生之學籍。
The following penalties are available to the panel for application:
(a) deduction of marks such as to cause course failure;
(b) directly reducing the mark for the course to zero;
(c) reduction of Grand Mean for the programme by up to 10%;
(d) reduction of degree classification by one or more classes;
(e) disqualification from the award of Honours;
(f) failure of degree with allowance to resit/resubmit for an Ordinary degree;
(g) disqualification from candidature for the award of a degree.
Penalties (e)-(g) should normally be reserved for cases of multiple misconduct in one exam diet or a serious second offence after being found guilty of misconduct in a previous diet. They are not normally used for a single example of a first offence
… The penalties that can be imposed range from a minimum of a zero mark for the work (with or without allowing resubmission) through the down grading of degree class, the award of a lesser qualification (eg a pass degree rather than honours, a certificate rather than diploma) to disciplinary measures such as suspension or expulsion.
澳洲的大學對於論文以及作業抄襲的辦法大致上比照美國, 如果發現抄襲行為, 被老師們發現的話, 一律照校規處理. 雪梨大學等學校在校規中提及, 抄襲行為依照嚴重程度, 召開委員會處理. 重者如蓄意抄襲, 經確定無誤後, 直接給予退學處分. 其餘如因疏失未提及文章出處等, 則給予警告等處分. 以下為雪梨大學以及坎培拉大學關於 plagiarism 校規一覽:
以下是澳洲墨爾本皇家理工大學為了 Plagiarism 特別叫學生填寫，以免論文遭盜用的一份文件: RMIT University - COVER SHEET for SUBMISSION of INDIVIDUAL/GROUP ASSIGNMENTS (.pdf)
(國內大學部分 Melinda 以及 Fred 資料蒐集、美國大學部分由 Zoe 負責，英國大學部分為 Aeon 而澳洲大學部分為 Jean)