第三， 表示你對自己的問題意識有清楚的認知：透過文獻探討來顯示你很清楚自己在和誰對話，在哪些論點上廝殺。論述不是無的放矢，當然需要說明你所批判的對象確實有你指控的那些觀點，就像提證據一樣，而且可以透過細讀close reading來解析對方的論點關鍵所在，也針對這樣的分析展現自身論點的更為周延。
Basic guidelines for using quotations:
|Use direct quotations only when the original language is so uniquely phrased and the details so vital that you cannot paraphrase and produce the same strong effect. Of course, if the quote directly bears upon the aspect you are discussing, do use the original and give credit to the author through a footnote or endnote. In most other cases, paraphrase will do.|
Ex. In arguing that men should cry when they feel the need to, Montagu states: "Crying is a natural function of the human organism which is designed to restore the emotionally dis-equilibrated person to a state of equilibrium" (382).
Ex. But it is crucial to note that the alternative of the Asian eyelid is not absolute, but rather, measured. McCurdy advises his colleagues, "Many patients…simply desire a small 'double eyelid' while maintaining the Oriental look" (4). Similarly, a press release from the American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery notes, "The procedure they seek are not so much to look 'western' but to refine their features to attain facial harmony."
Ex. 伊希葛黑指出，在父權體制下，如果孩童與母親的前伊底帕斯關係是心理分析裡的黑暗大陸，那麼母女關係必然是「黑暗大陸當中的黑暗大陸」（引自Grosz 1989: 120）。表面上，《女戰士》中，女兒重講母親所講的故事即已代表母女傳承。然而對湯亭亭而言，這份母女傳承卻令她百感交集。
Ex. 佛洛伊德終其一生一再明言他不明白夠了解女人，甚至以「黑暗大陸」形容女人(Freud, 1974, Vol. 19 : 243-4)
Ex. Third, political insurgency must be informed by a commitment to, in Stuart Hall's words, "the vocation of the intellectual life" (qtd. In Giroux, "Doing" 300).
|Never let any quote stand alone as if it were "self-explanatory." Instead, always precede it with some kind of explanation of your own and try to work the quote into the flow of your text. It is also nice to follow the quote with a deeper level analysis/interpretation/implication centering precisely on the point you are trying to get across through using this quote.|
Ex. Lakoff sums up the essence of sexual discrimination clearly: "A man is defined by what he does, a women by her sexuality." This implies that a man is supposed to act while a women is supposed to be, or that a man is supposed to do things while a woman is supposed to do nothing except becoming a sex object for men.
Ex. His insurgent cultural pedagogy de-reifies popular culture, while respecting its power to teach, just as it provides a theoretical framework for interrogation popular culture as a "commodity that must be examined as a source and effect of supra-individual relations" (Sholle 151).
Ex. Palahniuk's novel, however, is far more suggestive on the purpose of the homoerotic attraction. In the novel, Jack reflects that maybe "self-improvement isn't the answer….Maybe self-destruction is the answer" (49). The homoeroticism, in my view, is a part of the self-destruction.
Ex. Suzanne Clark's response to Giroux is much more accurate with regard to its suggestion that the characters played by Norton and Pitt are in a homoerotically charged relationship that appears repeatedly in the history of film. Clark writes that Fight Club "suggests homosexual themes and relationships even though the narrative does not openly admit them" (417). Clark's assessment is a strong beginning to the recognition of the homoeroticism of Fight Club.
Ex. As humans we are, as Freire has commented, in a "permanent process of searching" and our being in the world is "far more than just 'being'"; it is a "presence" that is "relational to the world and to others" (23, 25). Concrete dreaming represents an insurgent praxis of possibility that takes into account this presence; it is the existence we live out beyond the horizon of pure reason and toward the aspiration of collective freedom.
|For the effect of highlighting certain key notions, it is often more effective to use only key words or phrases taken from a passage rather than quoting the original text in great length. Unnecessary words tend to distract and dilute rather than concentrate the force of your argument.|
Ex. The above-mentioned case serves as a nice demonstration of "the linguistic double-standard" widely practiced in our society (Lakoff 410).
Ex. By making students more attentive to popular culture as a site of pedagogical and political struggle, we can address the epistemological demands of a multicultural community, just as we attempt to disrupt those commonsense "representations of the real" that draw their legitimacy from hegemonic formations of power ("Private" 24).
|If the quote is longer than four lines, then you need to set it apart from your main text by using single spacing inbetween the four (or more) lines of quote an double indentation for the margin.|
A fairly typical response appeared in the June 1992 issue of the popular journal Cosmopolitan, which gleefully announces: "Sex is in the air and men are trembling" (Zhang 18).
Michel Foucault has written that "man is an invention of recent date. And one perhaps nearing its end" (The Order of Things 387)
In a sensational report titled "College Women are Hooked on Adult Films," one journalist tries to characterize this trend as a catastrophe (Lee 28).
As the movement pushes on, even other famous writers also felt the pressure and could not help but take a stand on the issue of women's sexual emancipation (Lee 3; Lung 90).
It may be true, as Dean of the College Eric Robertson writes, that "in the appreciation of medieval art the attitude of the observer is of primary importance…" (136).
In his Autobiography, Benjamin Franklin claims that he prepared a list of thirteen virtues (135-137).
A 1995 report found "a decline in the academic quality of students choosing teaching as a career" ("White Collar Unemployment" 5).
Computerworld has devoted a thoughtful editorial to the issue of government and technology ("Uneasy Silence"), and one hopes that such public discussion will continue in the future.
不適合直接引用的句子："Levi's also opened two pilot girl-only stores, in Hong Kong and Kuala Lumpur, in April and May…,"
不適合直接引用的句子："Hong Kong-based retail chain Giordano International Ltd., which has a large presence throughout Asia, has been expanding its women's denim line for two years,"
它們適合消化後改寫：The Asian Wall Street Journal recently reported that the top manufacturers and retailers of blue jeans throughout Asia are expanding their production of women's denim and opening women-only stores in order to compete for the fast growing market.
Original: At home too, the Wilson administration was moving against radicals and other imprecisely defined as Bolsheviks or Communists. After the War, Americans were edgy: the war had disrupted race relations, the workplace, and the family; it had increased the cost of living; postwar unemployment loomed; and in 1919 the Russian Communists established the Comintern to promote world revolution. Already hardened by wartime violations of civil liberties, legal and illegal, Americans found it easy to blame their postwar troubles on new scapegoats. A rash of labor strikes in 1919 sparked the Red Scare.
Plagiarism: There were several reasons why radicals were persecuted during the post-war years. The war had disrupted race relations, the jobs, and the family. The war had also increased the cost of living while reducing employment. When the Russian communists established the Comitern in 1919 to promote world revolution, Americans felt the threat. The emotional stress as a result of these conditions exploded when labor strikes broke out in 1919, leading up to the Red Scare.
Paraphrase: As Norton et. al. have argued in A People and A Nation, the Red Scare was sparked by American uneasiness after the war as well as the potential threat of world revolution following the establishment of the Comintern in 1919. （這裡已經重整了原文的分析，不是直接描述美國政府做什麼或者提供一堆原因，而是把原文的一堆原因重整成為兩大主因，接下來就一個一個解說清楚） Faced with the domestic problems of disrupted race relations and human relationships in general, of high unemployment rate and at the same time high costs of living, Americans were emotionally troubled and needed an outlet. The established revolutionary machine of the Comintern became the symbol of evil and anybody in the US who was remotely related to or supportive of the Communists were branded and persecuted. （以下把原文的蘊涵向前推展一步，直指Red Scare是美國政府有意以掃紅來轉移注意力，避免民眾對政權不滿。這個結論已經把原文的含意說得非常明顯） In essence, the Red Scare not only provided an emotional diversion from post-war domestic problems but also allowed the Wilson administration to purge the country of dissent (657).